How does Computer Hacking Work? (Fundamentals of Hacking)

In today’s era, all human activities are digital. If there are a million advantages, then there are thousands of disadvantages too. If you are enjoying a game on the computer and someone behind you blackmails you by extracting all your information from your computer, then imagine how your life will be.

Hacking has become so infamous in today’s time that if someone asks you what you do and your answer is that you do hacking, either he will look at you with great pride or will consider you a thief.

Actually, people do not know much about hacking, they consider hacking to be just sleight of hand, but it is not so at all. Today in this article we will know what is hacking how does it work, and how many types of it are? how many types of hackers are there? And is hacking legal or illegal?

Know How does computer hacking work?

Hacking is a tool that is far away from you and cannot be accessed, yet accessing it by any means is called hacking. Simply put, hacking is the act of taking advantage of the shortcomings of a device to gain access, gain information and gain control over that device.

Hacking can only be done on those computers or on devices connected to the internet. Typically, hacking is used to defraud, steal data, or seek revenge. Similarly, some hackers work for the good of the people and the world.

Hacking hackers are often accused of cybercrimes. Little did you know that hacking attacks cost large companies billions of dollars a year?

History of Hacking

The term hacking originated in 1960 at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The history of hacking dates back to the history and advent of the Internet, and this is where the term hacking became famous. Phone fracking is considered the world’s most puzzle hacking.

The word hacking means to act cleverly. Therefore, harming the computer and tampering with the computer is called hacking. ARPANET was introduced in 1969, which later led to the development of the Internet.

Types of Hacking

  • Website hacking: website hacking is the act of accessing a website by taking advantage of a bug in the website.
  • Network hacking: this type of network control using tools like NS, Ping, and UP is called network hacking and in the meantime, all the information of your network is stolen.
  • Ethical hacking: ethical hacking is used for legal work. During this, hacking companies themselves hire hackers. This hacking is used to secure a company’s data and perform security checks.
  • Email hacking: hacking and misusing an email id is called email hacking. In this, all personal and official information can be stolen.
  • Password hacking: this type of password is stolen or cracked and the password can be changed. In such a situation, your id can be used for the wrong purposes.
  • Online banking hacking: hacking the server or user account of any bank is called online banking hacking. This hacking is mainly used for theft.
  • Computer hacking: accessing any computer without hands, creating, viewing, and editing files in it comes under computer hacking.

Who is a Hacker?

A hacker has a large amount of knowledge about computers, coding, networks, and devices. The hacker has accurate information about how to crack computer security.

In simple language, a hacker means a person who takes advantage of the weaknesses of your computer, website, and social site by sitting far away, breaking the walls of the internet, tampering with it, or logging in, it is called a hacker.

Types of Hackers

  1. Ethical Hacker (White Hat Hacker) – A person who does a good job is called an ethical hacker. Ethical hackers work in a legal way. The ethical hacker seeks the permission of the owner before doing his job. Companies hire such hackers to secure their data.
  2. Cracker (Black Hat Hacker) – These hackers do bad things so they commit cybercrimes. There are many things on your computer that these hackers steal and take advantage of, such as a net bank account, email ID, and important data, all of these. If black hat hackers hack a company’s data, the company could lose billions in a year. These hackers do other harm for their own benefit.
  3. Gray Hat Hacker – These hackers are not good or bad, these hackers usually work to show their talent. They break your security without the permission of the owner, but their purpose is not to harm anyone, these hackers check the security and tell the owner the shortcomings left in it and they also take money from the owner in return for reporting the shortcomings.
  4. Red Hat Hacker – These hackers upload viruses to the device of the attacking cracker, so the computer of the cracker is also often damaged. These hackers are mainly concerned with sensitive things like government agencies, top-secret information hubs, and the like.
  5. Blue Hat Hackers – Blue Hat Hackers work legally, these Hackers are Freelancers. He does not work for any company. They have very good knowledge of software, coding, apps, and networks. The company uses such hackers to find out the shortcomings of the product. The company gives them beta products to test, and in return, the company pays them good money. Blue Hat Hackers get encouragement from companies every time.
  6. Script Kiddie – Script kiddie hackers don’t know much about hacking. He is a non-expert in this area and he uses pre-packaged automated tools for hacking, which someone else has created. They do not know anything about these tools so they are called Script Kiddies.
  7. Hacktivist – A hacktivist is a hacker who uses his hacking techniques to hack social, ideological, religious, and political messages.
  8. Elite Hackers – These hackers themselves invent new ways of hacking. These hackers are considered to be the most powerful hackers in the community. These hackers have the highest and best techniques of hacking.

Why is Ethical Hacking legal?

Ethical hacking is considered legal as its actions are used to enhance the security of computer systems.

The theory behind ethical hacking is that white hat hackers check and protect the security systems of organizations and black hat hackers prevent them from carrying out illegal activities. Therefore ethical hacking is considered legal.

Fundamentals of Ethical Hacking

  1. Adware – Adware is a software application in which a program displays advertisement banners. Ads are presented through pop-up windows or bars that appear on the program’s user interface. Adware is usually made for computers, but it can also be found on mobile devices.
  2. Backdoor – A backdoor is a device for accessing a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system’s standard security.
  3. Attacks – The attack is an action that is done to access a system and extract its data.
  4. Bot – The bot is a software application that is programmed to perform a specific task. Bots are automated, meaning they move according to their own instructions, without the need for any human user to start them. Bots often mimic human user behavior. Usually, they perform repetitive tasks and they can do it much faster than human users.
  5. Botnet – Botnets can be used in distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDOS attacks), stealing data, sending spam, and allowing an attacker to access the device and its connection. The owner (C&C) can control the botnet using command and control software.
  6. Brute Force – A brute Force Attack involves an attacker who submits multiple passwords in the hope of making an accurate guess at the end. The attacker systematically checks all possible passwords until they are found to be accurate. The attacker can usually try to guess the keyword generated from the password by using the key derivation function. This is known as exhaustive keyword research.
  7. Buffer overflow – Buffer overflow or buffer overrun is a common software coding error that an attacker can make to gain access to your system.
  8. Cracker – A cracker is a person who performs the process of cracking or breaking into a computer or network system. A cracker can crack malicious activity, for profit, for some non-profit purpose or cause, or just for a challenge. Some crackers intentionally break into a network system and expose a security flaw in that network. In most cases, the purpose of the crackers is to gain access to confidential data, capture free software applications, or maliciously damage files.
  9. DDOS – Distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attacks are malicious attempts to block normal traffic on the target server, service, or network.
  10. Exploitation – Exploitation is a piece of software, a piece of data, or a sequence of commands that exploits a bug to create a bug or vulnerability in an application.
  11. Exploitation kits – Exploitation kits are automated threats that use compromised websites to divert web traffic, scan for insecure browser-based applications, and run malware.
  12. Spam – Spam means an email also known as junk email. These emails are sent against them to multiple recipients.
  13. Spyware – It is an unwanted application that infiltrates your computing devices and steals your Internet usage data and sensitive information.
  14. Threat – The threat is a potential threat that can take advantage of an existing bug.
  15. Trojan – A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is a type of malicious code or software that looks legitimate but can take over your computer.
  16. Zombie Drone – A zombie drone is defined as a hi-jack computer that is being used anonymously as a soldier or ‘drone’ for unknown activity (such as delivering unsolicited spam emails).
  17. Freaker – Freaker is called Telephone Hackers. With their help, phones are hacked and tapped.
  18. Rootkit – A rootkit is malicious software that allows an unauthorized user to gain privileges on a computer and in restricted areas of its software.
  19. Shrinkwrap Code – A shrinkwrap code attack is an attack used to exploit holes in unpatched and poorly configured software.

Best Hackers in the World

  • Gary McKinnon
  • Lulzsec
  • Adrian Lamo
  • Matthew Bevan and Richard Pryce
  • Jonathan James
  • Kevin Poulsen
  • Kevin Mitnick
  • Anonymous
  • Astra
  • Albert Gonzalez

Introduction of the Dark Web?

The Internet has made our life very easy and simple. Or you can say that it has completely changed because here you get the knowledge of everything and the field. But you probably know that the internet that you have become accustomed to has a dark side as well. Where even one mistake of yours can put you in big trouble. So know what the dark web is? And how to avoid

It’s not as easy as you think of the internet, but it’s more difficult than that. The Internet is divided into these 3 parts:- Surface Web, Deep Web & Dark Web.

  1. Surface WebThe amount of Internet that a normal person uses or accesses is only 4% of the entire Internet, this is called the Surface Web. Meaning whatever you search on Google, or YouTube and read the content of many websites, it all comes in this 4%.
  2. Deep WebHere are websites that can’t be found on Google or any search engine. Is the part of the Internet that is hidden from search engines? For example, your bank details, personal data of a company, government secrets, etc. To access these websites, you must have a separate link, user ID, and password, if you do not have all these then you cannot access them.
  3. Dark WebYou can call it the underworld of the Internet. Most of the illegal work happens on the dark web, which you cannot even think about. The size of the dark web is much larger than that of the surface web, and its size continues to grow. According to research from the University of California in 2001, there are approximately 7500 terabytes of information available on the dark web.

Whereas only 19 terabytes of information are available on the Surface Web. This means that 400 times more information is available on the dark web than on the surface web. If you do some search on the Internet, then you search only 0.03%. From this, you can get an idea of ​​how big the dark web is.

What Happens on the Dark Web?

Like I told you that the dark web is the underworld of the internet and criminals and illegals work here. Fake passport of any country from here, credit and debit card details of anyone, drugs, illegal weapons, guns, counterfeit currency, contract killers, fraud, extortion services for all types of crime.

Last year there was a report, according to which 13 lakh credit and debit card details of the people of India are available on the dark web. A card detailing is sold for $100.

All kinds of illegal weapons are bought and sold here. Delhi Police has arrested many people in dark web-related cases. A few days ago, Delhi Police arrested some people who bought drugs from the dark web.

Fake degrees and certifications of enrolled universities are sold on the dark web. Here people also hire hackers for their illegal work. Terrorism is also spread on the dark web. The terrorist organization uses this source for its terrorist videos.

Who Created the Dark Web?

Dark Web It works on onion routing technology. Which was developed by the US Navy in 1990. Knowing so many things about the dark web, you must have thought that it must have been developed by some big criminal. But it is nothing like that.

It was used to send confidential government documents and papers to protect them from being hacked or leaked. For this, a special browser was also developed which ran on Onion Routing Technique.

Onion got its name because onion consists of many layers, similarly, whenever a message is sent through this particular browser, the IP address of the sender is encrypted in multiple layers. Because of this, the angle between the sender and the receiver is not known.

The dark web is a dangerous virtual world that you should always stay away from because hackers are looking for their prey and many undercover gangsters are on the hunt.

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